9th Class Biology Notes

9th Class Biology Chapter Wise Notes.

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This plan is very important for exam preparation. The complete syllabus of the Biology book is described below. Topics / Subtopics / Activities to be covered You must read it.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Biology
  • Chapter Introduction
  • Divisions of biology
  • Relationship of biology to other sciences
  • Careers in biology
  • Quran and biology
  • Muslim scientists
  • Levels of Organization – subatomic & atomic level; molecular level; organelle and cell level/ tissue level; organ and organ system level; individual level
  • Population-level/ Community and biosphere level
  • Cellular organization – Unicellular and colonial organization
  • Multicellular organization – mustard plant and frog
  • Assessment
  • Practical: Study of different types of bacteria with the help of prepared slides and of Amoeba, Paramecium, Volvox from prepared slides/ fresh culture/charts
  • Practical: Study of the external morphology of mustard plant and microscopic examination of root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, and seeds
  • Practical: Identification of major organs and organ systems in a dissected frog (dissection by demonstrator/teacher)

Courtesy:

Sir Numan Sadaf Sahib (Govt model High School 343 GB)

Chapter 2: Solving a Biological Problem

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Introduction to biological method
  • Recognition of biological problem; observations; formulation of hypothesis; deductions and experiments; reporting the results
  • Study of malaria as an example
  • Theory, law and principle
  • Data organization and data analysis
  • Mathematics as an integral part of the scientific process
  • Assessment

Chapter 3: Biodiversity

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Introduction and importance of biodiversity
  • Classification: Aims & basis of classification
  • Taxonomic hierarchy
  • Species – basic unit of classification
  • History of classification Systems
  • Two-kingdom & three-kingdom classification system
  • Five-kingdom classification system
  • Characteristics of the five kingdoms
  • Status of viruses
  • Binomial nomenclature; Its significance
  • Conservation of biodiversity; Impacts of human being on nature
  • Practical: Observation of the apparent distinguishing taxonomic characters from fresh and preserved specimens and recognition of plants and animals on the basis of their taxonomic characters
  • Practical: Evaluation of graphs of a population of an insect

Chapter 4: Cells and Tissues

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Microscopy and the emergence of Cell Theory
  • Light microscopy and electron microscopy
  • History of the formulation of Cell Theory
  • Sub-cellular or A-cellular particles
  • Cellular structures and functions; Cell wall
  • Cell membrane; Cytoplasm; cytoskeleton
  • Cell organelles; Nucleus; Ribosomes; Mitochondria; Plastids
  • Endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus ; Lysosomes; Centrioles; Vacuoles
  • Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
  • Relationship between cell function and cell structure
  • Cell Size and Surface Area to Volume ratio
  • Passage of molecules into and out of cells – Diffusion; Facilitated diffusion; Osmosis; Filtration; Active transport
  • Endocytosis & Exocytosis
  • Animal tissue – Epithelial tissue
  • Connective tissues, Muscle tissue; Nervous tissue
  • Plant tissues – Simple tissues (Meristemaic tissue & Permanent tissues)
  • Compound tissues (Xylem & Phloem tissue)
  • Assessment
  • Review of Chapter/Test
  • Practical: Use of microscope to observe movement of water in plants and to compare sizes of various types of cells
  • Practical: Examination under the microscope an animal cell (e.g. from frog’s blood) and a plant cell (e.g. from onion epidermis), using an appropriate temporary staining technique, such as iodine or methylene blue
  • Practical: Identification, from fresh preparations, of the cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm in an animal cell and the cell wall, cell membrane, sap vacuole, cytoplasm, nucleus and chloroplasts in a plant cell
  • Practical: Preparation of the wet mounts of tissue from flowering plants and study of plant and animal tissues from charts and prepared slides
  • Practical: Determination of the effect of tonicity on plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in plant cells or in Red Blood Cell
  • Practical: Data collection on the number of stomata per unit area on various plant leaves that grow in areas of differing humidity, and compilation of data in a spreadsheet and graph it to determine whether there is a relationship between the variables

Chapter 5: Cell Cycle

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Cell cycle
  • Mitosis (Karyokinesis, Cytokinesis)
  • Significance of Mitosis / Errors in mitosis
  • Meiosis; Phases of Meiosis; Prophase 1
  • Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1,Telophase 1
  • Meiosis II; Significance of Meiosis
  • Comparison between mitosis and meiosis
  • Apoptosis and Necrosis
  • Assessment
  • Practical: Observation of various stages of mitosis and meiosis by slides, model and charts
  • Practical: Preparations of root tip squashes and study stages of mitosis

Chapter 6: Enzyme

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Introduction of enzymes
  • Mechanism of enzyme action (Lock-n-Key Model)
  • Specificity of Enzymes
  • Assessment
  • Review/Test
  • Practical: Experiment to show working of enzyme in vitro e.g., pepsin working on meat in test tube
  • Practical: Experiment to test enzyme action by putting diastase in a starch solution in test tube at 37°C and after fifteen minutes performing iodine test for presence of starch

Chapter 7: Bioenergetics

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Bioenergetics and the role of ATP
  • Oxidation and reduction reaction
  • ATP: The cell energy currency
  • Photosynthesis; Mechanism of photosynthesis – Light reactions
  • Mechanism of respiration
  • Energy budget of respiration
  • Assessment
  • Review/Test
  • Practical: Demonstration of the process of photosynthesis using an aquatic plant like Hydrilla
  • Practical: Identification and labelling of the cellular and tissue structure in the CS of a leaf through observation under the microscope
  • Practical: Investigation of the necessity of chlorophyll, light, carbon dioxide, using appropriate controls
  • Practical: Experiment to demonstrate the process of respiration in germinating seeds by using limewater
  • Practical: Investigation of the release of carbon dioxide and heat during aerobic respiration in germinating seeds

Chapter 8: Nutrition

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Mineral Nutrition in Plants
  • Role of nitrogen and magnesium
  • Importance of fertilizers
  • Components of human food
  • Minerals / Role of Calcium and iron
  • Effects of Vitamins (A, C and D)
  • Effects of Water and Dietary fibre
  • Balanced Diet
  • Problems related to nutrition
  • Effect of malnutrition
  • Famine – the major causes
  • Digestion in Humans
  • Ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and defecation,
  • Human alimentary canal – Oral cavity

Chapter 9: Transport 

  • Chapter Introduction
  • Transport in plants; Water and ion uptake
  • Transpiration; Opening and closing of stomata
  • Factors affecting the rate of transpiration; Significance of transpiration
  • Transport of water and transport of food
  • Transport in Humans
  • Blood – Composition & Blood disorders
  • ABO blood group system; Blood transfusions in ABO blood group system
  • Rh blood group systems; Blood transfusions in Rh blood group system
  • Human heart
  • Pulmonary and systemic circulation
  • Heart beat; Heart rate and Pulse rate
  • Blood vessels
  • General plan of human Arterial and Venous system
  • Cardiovascular disorders
  • Practical: Measurement of differences in length/weight of raw potato strips in concentrated salt solution and water
  • Practical: Observation of root hairs on a growing root of onion, carrot etc.
  • Practical: Microscopic observation of the structure and number of stomata in an epidermal peel of a leaf
  • Practical: Investigation of the rate of water loss at the two surfaces of a leaf by a simple experiment using cobalt chloride paper
  • Practical: Investigation of transpiration in potted plant under a bell jar

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